Safe Maximum Daily Dosages

Of essential/popular vitamins, minerals and cofactors in supplements including daily values.

VITAMINS

    DV+
Vitamin A (Retinol & its esters)
1.5 mg (5,000 IU) with high dietary retinol
3.0 mg (10,000 lUI with low dietary retinol
5000 IU
Beta Carotene (synthetic or naturally derived)
25 mg for non-smokers
0 mg for smokers
3.0 mg (10,000 lUI with low dietary retinol
++
Vitamin D (D2 and D3) Ergocalciferol; Cholecalciferol
60 mcg (2,400 IU)
(Note: Vitamin D3 is The preferred form)
400 lU
Vitamin E 1073 mg as RRR-alpha-tocopherol (1600 IU) 30 lU
Vitamin K (K1 and K2)
(Phylloquinone, Phytonadione, Menaquinone)
10 mg
80 mcg
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid, Ascorbates)
2000 mg
60 mg
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
100 mg
1.5 mg
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
200 mg
1.7 mg
Niacinamide (Nicotinamide, B3)
1500 mg
20 mg
Niacin (Nicotinic Acid, B3)
500 mg (based on liver and gastrointestinal toxicity)
S.R. 250 mg (based on liver toxicity)
20 mg
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
100 mg
2 mg
Folic Acid 1000 mcg 400 mcg
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
3000 mcg
6 mcg
Biotin 2500 mcg 300 mcg
Pantothenic Acid 1000 mg 10 mg

MINERALS

Calcium 1500 mg 1000 mg
Phosphorus 1500 mg 1000 mg
Magnesium 400 mg 400 mg
Potassium 1500 mg (500 mg up to three times daily with meals.)

NOTE: The FDA does not allow more than 100 mg Potassium in a
suggested daily dose, even though there is no discernible scientific
justification for this arbitrary low threshold.
3500 mg
Boron 6 mg ++
Chromium (any form of trivalent Chromium)
1000 mcg
120 mcg
Copper 9 mg
(Note: Cupric Oxide is a very poorly bioavailable source
of Copper.)
2 mg
Iodine 500 mcg 150 mcg
Iron 60 mg with food
45 mg on empty stomach
18 mg
Manganese 10mg 2 mg
Molybdenum 350 mcg 75 mcg
Selenium 200 mcg 70 mcg
Zinc 30 mg
(Note: Zinc oxide is a poorly bioavailable source of Zinc.)
15 mg
ULS (2004)
Council for Responsible Nutrition's "Upper Level for Supplements"
(Vitamin and Mineral Safety. 2nd Edition, CRN)
No ULS has been determined for Vanadium, Nickel, Silicon

+ Daily Value
++ No Daily Value has been established
The safe levels for 80ron, Nickel and Vanadium have not been established.

 

COFACTORS & NUTRACEUTICALS

  DV+
L-Carnitine
OSL (Observed Safe Level) - 2000 mg/day*
"Risk assessment for carnitine" John N. Hathcock, et al
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (2006)
*Acetyl Carnitine 2732 mg/day - Propionyl Carnitine 2906 mg/day
No DV
Creatine Monohydrate
OSL (Observed Safe Level) - 5 grams/day
"Risk assessment for creatine monohydrate" Andrew Shao, et al
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (2006)
No DV
Coenzyme Q10
OSL (Observed Safe Level) - 1200 mg/day
"Risk assessment for Coenzyme Q10" John N. Hathcock, et al
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (2006)
No DV
Lutein (all trans)
OSL (Observed Safe Level) - 20 mg/day (equal to 40 mg Lutein Esters/day) "Risk assessment for the carotenoids lutein and Iycopene"
Andrew Shao, et al
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (2006)
ULS 38 mg/day (extrapolation from animal data)
No DV
Lycopene
OSL (Observed Safe Level) - 75 mg/day
"Risk assessment for the carotenoids lutein and Iycopene"
Andrew Shao, et a1
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (2006)
ULS: 270 mg/day (extrapolation from animal data)
No DV
Choline
UL (Tolerable Upper Limit) - 3500 mg/day
From the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences USA.
"Dietary Reference Intakes for Folate, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin,
Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and Choline", Vol. 1. Washington,
DC; NatI.Acad.Press.
No DV

 

NUTRACEUTICALS

  DV+
Glucosamine
OSL (Observed Safe Level) - 2000 mg/day
(either the Hydrochloride or the Sulfate).
"Risk assessment for Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate"
John N. Hathcock, et al.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (2006)
No DV
Chondroitin Sulfate
OSL (Observed Safe Level) - 1200 mg/day
"Risk assessment for Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate"
John N. Hathcock, et al.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (2006)
No DV
Omega-3 Fatty Acids (EPA and DHA)
OSL - 3000 mg/day
ULS - 3000 mg/day
"The Risk Assessment and Safety of 8ioactive Substances in Food Supplements" IADSA
No DV
+ Daily Value

NOTE: OSL and UL levels are for adults unless otherwise indicated.

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